straight up

Allan Kaprow, who coined the term "Happening," was particularly interested in blurring the distinction between artwork and audience. The ultimate integrated art, he reasoned, would be without an audience, because every participant would be an integral part of the work. As he wrote in his 1966 primer, "Untitled Guidelines for Happenings," "The line between art and life should be kept as fluid, and perhaps indistinct, as possible." This approach led to a performance style that pioneered deliberate, aesthetically conceived group interactivity in a composed environment. Happenings artists devised formal elements that allowed participants the freedom to make personal choices and collective decisions that would affect the performance.