Kaprow, who coined the term "Happening," was particularly
interested in blurring the distinction between artwork and audience.
The ultimate integrated art, he reasoned, would be without an
audience, because every participant would be an integral part
of the work. As he wrote in his 1966 primer, "Untitled Guidelines
for Happenings," "The line between art and life should be kept
as fluid, and perhaps indistinct, as possible." This approach
led to a performance style that pioneered deliberate, aesthetically
conceived group interactivity in a composed environment. Happenings
artists devised formal elements that allowed participants the
freedom to make personal choices and collective decisions that
would affect the performance.